Dementia is a progressive disease that affects memory, thinking, and behaviour. As dementia advances, patients require increasing levels of care and support. For families, placing a loved one with dementia in a care home can be a difficult but necessary decision. Care homes employ staff trained in caring for dementia patients and aim to provide a safe, supportive environment.
Establishing a Care Routine
Dementia patients thrive on routine. Care homes establish daily schedules for meals, activities, therapies, and personal care. Keeping to a regular routine helps reduce anxiety and behavior issues. Patients should be gently guided through each activity on their schedule. Written checklists, timers, and reminders posted in their room can be useful cues.
Where possible, patients should be encouraged to perform daily tasks themselves to maintain independence. Simple choices like what to wear or food to eat give patients a sense of control. Cue the person through each step of a task, allowing extra time for them to complete it. Break down activities into smaller steps if needed. Praise their efforts.
Dementia impairs communication skills. Speak slowly, use simple words, and allow time for responses. Maintain eye contact and limit distractions when talking. Encourage non-verbal cues like pointing or gestures. Photo albums and reminiscing can help prompt conversation. Validate their feelings and avoid arguing. Music, art, pets and other sensory therapies can enhance communication when words fail.
The dementia brain struggles to interpret situations appropriately. Hallucinations, delusions, aggression and wandering are common behaviors. Rule out underlying causes like hunger, pain or a need to use the bathroom. Use gentle distraction and redirection to manage behaviors. Reassure the patient and remain calm. Remove potentially dangerous objects from the environment. Consult their doctor about therapy options. Medications can ease severe behaviors when other methods fail.
Idleness exacerbates dementia behaviors and apathy. The care home should provide supervised activities tailored to the person’s abilities and interests. Group exercise, games, crafts, music or pet therapy encourage social interaction. One-on-one activities like looking at family photos or taking walks outdoors provide engagement. Simple chores give a sense of purpose. Ensure the person gets outside for fresh air and exercise daily.
Providing Proper Nutrition
Poor nutrition accelerates dementia decline. The care home should provide balanced meals with extra calories and protein recommended for dementia patients. Remind and assist the person to eat. Check for chewing and swallowing issues. Finger foods allow self-feeding. Nutritional supplements between meals can prevent weight loss. Keep favorite foods or snacks available to encourage eating.
With understanding and patience, professional care homes can provide dementia patients with dignity, safety and quality of life. Educating families on dementia care ensures ongoing family involvement. Caring for a dementia patient is challenging but rewarding work.